Since 1977, Thermodynamics has been extended to cover systems that can indeed output more than the operator inputs as long as these systems remain open to external sources of input in addition to our own. This branch of physics is generally known as Open System Thermodynamics or Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics. These systems are referred to as non-equilibrium systems because if they’re open to free energy input from the environment, this does not prevent entropy but rather it delays entropy, which means that they are prevented from coming into equilibrium so fast. The result is that more work is being done in total compared to what we had to pay for on the input.
Every heat pump already works this way – we pay for a bit of electricity to turn a compressor and heat moves for free all by itself towards the cold. The total amount of heat moved in electrical equivelant can easily be hundreds of percent more than the electrical cost to turn the compressor.
Another important distinction is to know the difference between efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP). Efficiency is the total output compared to the total input, which includes both our input and free energy input from the environment. COP is the total output compared to only what we have to pay for. Therefore, since there are always losses, the technologies we are sharing with the public are under 100% efficient, but they still can produce more work that what we have to pay for, which is over 1.0 COP. That means there is over 100% more work done than we had to pay for.
This is how every natural system in the universe operates and it is surprising that it has been only about 40 years since this distinction has been open pointed out and in fact shows us that the standard closed system thermodynamics isn’t even accurate since all systems are technically open systems. Some open systems are designed to make use of free energy input from the environment and some are not, but they all remain open to environmental source potential.
Virtually ever single technology that we aspire to share with the world through the Energy Science & Technology Conference are easily explained and fully permitted by the immutable open system laws of nature and we believe it is the birthright of every human being to understand this truth.